open access


Scientific literature is online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. OA removes price barriers and permission barriers. The content published is freely available and no restrictions to use. OA providers permit commercial re-use here are how the Budapest Open Access Initiative put it: "There are many degrees and kinds of wider and easier access to this literature. By 'open access' to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited."


  1. Digital, free available, no restrictions to use.
  2. No price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per-view fees).
  3. No permission barriers (most copyright and licensing restrictions).
  4. Permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles.


You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Our authors retain copyright to their work and allow others to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt their work, provided proper attribution is given. Authors may also publish the final paper on any repository or website with a complete citation for the paper.


  • Inscienz Inc,
    17330 Preston Road
  • #200 D, Dallas, TX 75252
  • United States.